Piperine (C17H19NO3) is what gives black pepper its pungency. It is slightly soluble in water and highly soluble in alcohol, chloroform and ether. Piperine has a long history of use in some types of traditional medicine. Its primary commercial use is in modern herbal medicine. It is classified as an acute toxin. It’s melting point is 131.5°C. It was tested for effectiveness against oropharyngeal dysphagia (the inability to swallow). Piperine has many pharmacological effects and several health benefits, especially against chronic diseases, such as reduction of insulin-resistance and anti-inflammatory effects.