Designed to traverse treacherous martian terrain, Dual-Function Arc Wheels can move over obstacles, cross on top of sand dunes, and collect soil samples. 48 curved grousers enable the rover to climb over rocks by providing traction and distributing rover weight to internal support. Behind the grousers, an ultra-thin shell keeps the rover on top of the sand. In these sandy areas, the most remarkable feature can be used: its titanium shovel piece, which is present on the middle wheels. When collecting a sample it rotates 45 degrees away from the wheel, and as the wheel rotates through the soft ground the shovel gets filled with soil. It comes up on the other side of the wheel and the soil falls into a sample container inside the wheel (not depicted in CAD). This design takes advantage of the slow rover speed and optimizes wheel performance for Mars.